I just finished reading “Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Modeling in RDF, RDFS and OWL”. Great book! Lots of examples and deep exploration of Semantic Web fundamentals. It inspired me… not to use OWL, no… but to describe how we approach inference/reasoning in Ontopedia.
There are several fundamental principles that we try to follow developing inference capabilities in Ontopedia.
We assume that Ontopedia’s knowledge base can have contradictions at any time. We try to develop a system that can do “reasonable” inferences within inconsistent knowledge base.
Non-monotonic, Adaptive Knowledge Base
People change opinions, modify existing and create new theories (formal and informal). People learn new things, they can be convinced and taught (sometimes). There is evolution in general and personal knowledge. We would like to support these “subject-centric” features.
In simple cases, Ontopedia users can change their factual assertions. This can trigger truth maintenance processes and revision of other assertions. Ontopedia also keeps history of assertions – “Who asserted What and When”
Minimization of Inconsistency
We try to create a system that can operate/reason within inconsistent knowledge base. But it is not enough. We embed mechanisms that allow to identify inconsistencies and help to resolve them. Knowledge conflicts are “first class objects” in Ontopedia and are organized based on conflict types. Each knowledge conflict type has conditions that describe how conflicts of this type can be identified. There are also some recommendations for resolving conflicts. In general, Ontopedia’s user community tries to minimize knowledge inconsistency and Ontopedia system “tries” to help users to achieve this goal.
Inference Transparency and Information Provenance
Inference is not an easy process, contradictions are tough, knowledge evolution is challenging. We do not try to create an illusion that these things are easy and that a user can just “click a button” and magically get “all” inferred assertions, we do not try to “virtualize” inference and hide it behind a query language, for example. We think about inference as a process that can be time and resource consuming and can include multiple steps. Ontopedia provides facilities to record various steps of inference process. Inference tracing is an important part of Information Provenance in Ontopedia. We keep track of “Who asserted What and When” and we also keep track of “What was Inferred based on What and Why”.
Multiple Inference Modules and Decision Procedure
RDFS inference rules are useful, RDFS+ adds some new tricks. OWL 1.0 inference looks interesting in many contexts and OWL 2.0 looks even better. What about Common Logic? What about Cyc-like inference?… Ontopedia’s system architecture supports various inference modules. Each module can generate proposals based on the current state of Ontopedia’s knowledge base. These proposals are recorded in the knowledge base but they do not automatically become Ontopedia’s “visible” assertions. Different inference modules can produce controversial proposals, it’s OK. Various proposals are considered by Ontopedia’s decision procedure that calculates “final” assertion that becomes “visible” on Ontopedia’s web site. Decision procedure can be invoked on any assertion at any time. Ontopedia’s knowledge base is not limited by “true” only statements. We utilize multi-valued truth including “unknown.”
Loosely Coupled Inference, Decision Making, and Truth Maintenance
Ontopedia is a system that can “infer a little bit something here”, “find some knowledge conflicts there”, “make some new decisions”, “infer a little bit more”, “review some decisions” etc. All these activities can be performed in any order by various components.
All activities are recorded in the “activity log” (it is available as RSS/ATOM feed). Various modules can explore activity log and use it for managing own activities and cooperation between modules. In general, modules can run in parallel in various areas of Ontopedia’s knowledge base. These activities can be directed buy user community through user interface or can be directed by “controller” software components.
I developed this approach and related system architecture in late 80s and used it successfully in various projects for relatively small data sets during last 20 years. What is exciting about 2010? It’s availability of huge data sets on the Web. There is also experience in building Social Web and much better understanding of Collective Intelligence. I could only envision in 1990 that it would be possible to build large stable evolving paraconsistent open knowledge based systems. In 2010, I am pretty sure about this.